Bamako Convention on the Ban of the Import into Africa and the Control of Transboundary Movement and Management of Hazardous Wastes within Africa
The Parties to this Convention,
1. Mindful of the growing threat to health and the environment posed by the increased generation and the complexity of hazardous wastes,
2. Further mindful that the most effective way of protecting human health and the environment from the dangers posed by such wastes is the reduction of their generation to a minimum in terms of quantity and/or hazard potential.
3. Aware of the risk of damage to human health and the environment caused by transboundary movements of hazardous wastes,
4. Reiterating that States should ensure that the generator should carry out his responsibilities with regard to the transport and disposal of hazardous wastes in a manner that is consistent with the protection of human health and environment, whatever the place of disposal,
5. Recalling relevant Chapters of the Charter of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) on environmental protection, the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Chapter IX of the Lagos Plan of Action and other Recommendations adopted by the Organization of African Unity on the environment,
6. Further recognizing the sovereignty of States to ban the importation into, and the transit through, their territory, of hazardous wastes and substances for human health and environmental reasons,
7. Recognizing also the increasing mobilization in Africa for the prohibition of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal in African countries,
8. Convinced that hazardous wastes should, as far as is compatible with environmentally sound and efficient management, be disposed in the State where they were generated,
9. Convinced that the effective control and minimization of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes will act as an incentive, in Africa and elsewhere, for the reduction of the volume of the generation of such wastes,
10. Noting that a number of international and regional agreements deal with the problem of the protection and preservation of the environment with regard to the transit of dangerous goods,
11. Taking into account the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972), the Cairo Guidelines and Principles for the Environmentally Sound Management of Hazardous Wastes adopted by the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) by Decision 14/30 of 17 June, 1987, the Recommendations of the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (formulated in 1957 and updated biennially), the Charter of Human Rights, relevant recommendations, declarations, instruments and regulations adopted within the United Nations System, the relevant articles of the 1989 Brussels Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal which allow for the establishment of regional agreements which may be equal to or stronger than its own provisions, Article 39 of the Lome IV Convention relating to the international movement of hazardous wastes and radioactive wastes, African intergovernmental organizations and the work and studies done within other international and regional organizations,
12. Mindful of the spirit, principles, aims and functions of the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources adopted by the African Heads of State and Government in Algiers (1968) and the World Charter for Nature adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations at its Thirty-seventh Session (1982) as the rule of ethics in respect of the protection of the human environment and the conservation of natural resources,
13. Concerned by the problem of transboundary traffic in hazardous wastes,
14. Recognizing the need to promote the development of clean production methods, including clean technologies, for the sound management of hazardous wastes produced in Africa, in particular, to avoid, minimize and eliminate the generation of such wastes,
15. Recognizing also that where necessary hazardous wastes should be transported in accordance with relevant international conventions and recommendations,
16. Determined to protect, by strict control, the human health of the African population and the environment against the adverse effects which may result from the generation of hazardous wastes,
17. Affirming a commitment also to responsibly address the problem of hazardous wastes originating within the Continent of Africa,
HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS:
ARTICLE 1: Definitions
For the purpose of this Convention:
1. “Wastes” are substances or materials which are disposed of, or are intended to be disposed of, or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of national law;
2. “Hazardous wastes” means wastes as specified in Article 2 of this Convention;
3. “Management” means the prevention and reduction of hazardous wastes and the collection, transport, storage, and treatment either for the reuse or disposal, of hazardous wastes including after-care of disposal sites;
4. “Transboundary movement” means any movement of hazardous wastes from an area under the national jurisdiction of any State to or through an area under the national jurisdiction of another State, or to or through an area not under the national jurisdiction of another State, provided at least two States are involved in the movement;
5. “Clean production methods” means production or industrial systems which avoid, or eliminate the generation of hazardous wastes and hazardous products in conformity with Article 4, section 3 (f) and (g) of this Convention;
6. “Disposal” means any operation specified in Annex III to this Convention;
7. “Approval site or facility” means a site or facility for the disposal of hazardous wastes which is authorized or permitted to operate for this purpose by a relevant authority of the State where the site or facility is located;
8. “Competent authority” means governmental authority designated by a Party to be responsible, within such geographical areas as the Party may think fit, for receiving the notification of a transboundary movement of hazardous wastes and any information related to it, and for responding to such a notification, as provided in Article 6 of this Convention;
9. “Focal point” means the entity of a Party referred to in Article 5 of this Convention responsible for receiving and submitting information as provided for in Articles 13 and 16;
10. “Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes” means taking all practicable steps to ensure that hazardous wastes are managed in a manner which will protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects which may result from such wastes;
11. “Area under the national jurisdiction of a State” means any land, marine area or airspace within which a State exercises administrative and regulatory responsibility in accordance with international law in regard to the protection of human health or the environment;
12. “State of export” means a State from which a transboundary movement of hazardous wastes is planned to be initiated or is initiated;
13. “State of import” means a State to which a transboundary movement is planned or takes place for the purpose of disposal therein or for the purpose of loading prior to disposal in an area not under the national jurisdiction of any State;
14. “State of transit” means any State, other than the State of export or import, through which a movement of hazardous wastes is planned or takes place;
15. “States concerned” means States of export or import, or transit states, whether or not Parties;
16. “Person” means any natural or legal person;
17. “Exporter” means any person under the jurisdiction of the State of export who arranges for hazardous wastes to be exported;
18. “Importer” means any person under the jurisdiction of the State of import who arranges for hazardous wastes to be imported;
19. “Carrier” means any person who carries out the transport of hazardous wastes;
20. “Generator” means any person whose activity produces hazardous wastes, or, if that person is not known, the person who is in possession and/or control of those wastes;
21. “Disposer” means any person to whom hazardous wastes are shipped and who carries out the disposal of such wastes;
22. “Illegal traffic” means any transboundary movement of hazardous wastes as specified in Article 9 of this Convention;
23. “Dumping at sea” means the deliberate disposal of hazardous wastes at sea from vessels, aircraft, platforms or other man-made structures at sea, and includes ocean incineration and disposal into the seabed and sub-seabed.
ARTICLE 2: Scope of the Convention
1. The following substances shall be “hazardous wastes” for the purposes of this convention:
(a) Wastes that belong to any category contained in Annex I of this Convention;
(b) Wastes that are not covered under paragraph (a) above but are defined as, or are considered to be, hazardous wastes by the domestic legislation of the State of export, import or transit;
(c) Wastes which possess any of the characteristics contained in Annex II of this Convention;
(d) Hazardous substances which have been banned, cancelled or refused registration by government regulatory action, or voluntarily withdrawn from registration in the country of manufacture, for human health or environmental reasons.
2. Wastes which, as a result of being radioactive, are subject to any international control systems, including international instruments, applying specifically to radioactive materials, are included in the scope of this Convention.
3. Wastes which derive from the normal operations of a ship, the discharge of which is covered by another international instrument, shall not fall within the scope of this Convention.
ARTICLE 3: National Definitions of Hazardous Wastes
1. Each State shall, within six months of becoming a Party to this Convention, inform the Secretariat of the Convention of the wastes, other than those listed in Annex I of this Convention, considered or defined as hazardous under its national legislation and of any requirements concerning transboundary movement procedures applicable to such wastes.
2. Each Party shall subsequently inform the Secretariat of any significant changes to the information it has provided pursuant to Paragraph 1 of this Article.
3. The Secretariat shall forthwith inform all Parties of the information it has received pursuant to paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article.
4. Parties shall be responsible for making the information transmitted to them by the Secretariat under Paragraph 3 of this Article available to their exporters and other appropriate bodies.
ARTICLE 4: General Obligations
1. Hazardous Waste Import Ban.
All Parties shall take appropriate legal, administrative and other measures within the area under their jurisdiction to prohibit the import of all hazardous wastes, for any reason, into Africa from non-Contracting Parties. Such import shall be deemed illegal and a criminal act. All Parties shall:
(a) forward as soon as possible, all information relating to such illegal hazardous waste import activity to the Secretariat who shall distribute the information to all Contracting Parties;
(b) co-operate to ensure that no imports of hazardous wastes from a non-Party enter a Party to this Convention. To this end, the Parties shall, at the Conference of the Contracting Parties, consider other enforcement mechanisms.
2. Ban on Dumping of Hazardous Wastes at Sea and Internal Waters.
(a) Parties, in conformity with related international conventions and instruments shall, in the exercise of their jurisdiction within their internal waters, territorial seas, exclusive economic zones and continental shelf, adopt legal, administrative and other appropriate measures to control all carriers from non-Parties, and prohibit the dumping at sea of hazardous wastes, including their incineration at sea and their disposal in the seabed and sub-seabed. Any dumping of hazardous wastes at sea, including incineration at sea as well as seabed and sub-seabed disposal, by Contracting Parties, whether in internal waters, territorial seas, exclusive economic zones or high seas all be deemed to be illegal;
(b) Parties shall forward, as soon as possible, all information relating to dumping of hazardous wastes to the Secretariat which shall distribute the information to all Contracting Parties.
3. Waste generation in Africa.
Each Party shall:
(a) ensure that hazardous waste generators submit to the Secretariat reports regarding the wastes that they generate in order to enable the Secretariat of the Convention to produce a complete hazardous waste audit;
(b) impose strict, unlimited liability as well as joint and several liability of hazardous waste generators;
(c) ensure that the generation of hazardous wastes within the area under its jurisdiction is reduced to a minimum taking into account social, technological and economic aspects;
(d) ensure the availability of adequate treatment and/or disposal facilities, for the environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes which shall be located, to the extent possible, within its jurisdiction;
(e) ensure that persons involved in the management of hazardous wastes within its jurisdiction take such steps as are necessary to prevent pollution arising from such wastes and, if such pollution occurs, to minimize the consequence thereof for human health and the environment;
The Adoption of Precautionary Measures:
(f) Each Party shall strive to adopt and implement the preventive, precautionary approach to pollution problems which entails, inter alia, preventing the release into the environment of substances which may cause harm to humans or the environment without waiting for scientific proof regarding such harm. The Parties shall cooperate with each other in taking the appropriate measures to implement the precautionary principle to pollution prevention through the application of clean production methods, rather than the pursuit of permissible emissions approach based on assimilative capacity assumption;
(g) In this respect Parties shall promote clean production methods applicable to entire product life cycles including:
· raw material selection, extraction and processing;
· product conceptualization, design, manufacture and assemblage;
· materials transport during all phases;
· industrial and household usage;
· reintroduction of the product into industrial systems or nature when it no longer services a useful function; Clean production shall not include “end-of-pipe” pollution controls such as filters and s crubbers, or chemical, physical or biological treatment. Measures which reduce the volume of waste by incineration or concentration, mask the hazard by dilution, or transfer pollutants from one environment medium to another, are also excluded;
(h) The issue of preventing the transfer to Africa of polluting technologies shall e kept under systematic review by the Secretariat of the Conference and periodic report shall be made to the Conference of the Parties; Obligations in Transport and Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes from Contracting Parties:
(i) each Party shall prevent the export of hazardous wastes to States which have prohibited by their legislation or international agreement all such imports, or if it has reason to believe that the wastes in question will not be managed in an environmentally sound manner, according to criteria to be decided on by the Parties at their first meeting;
(j) a Party shall not permit hazardous wastes to be exported to a State which does not have the facilities for disposing of them in an environmentally sound manner;
(k) each Party shall ensure that hazardous wastes to be exported are managed in an environmentally sound manner in the State of import and transit. Technical guidelines for the environmentally sound management of wastes subject to this Convention shall be decided by the Parties at their first meeting;
(l) the Parties agree not to allow the export of hazardous wastes for disposal within the area South of 60 degrees South Latitude, whether or not such wastes are subject to transboundary movement;
(m) further, each Party shall:
(i) prohibit all persons under its national jurisdiction from transporting, storing or disposing of hazardous wastes unless such persons are authorized or allowed to perform such operations;
(ii) ensure that hazardous wastes that are to be the subject of a transboundary movement are packaged, labelled, and transported in conformity with generally accepted and recognized international rules and standards in the field of packaging, labelling, and transport, and that due account is taken of relevant internationally recognized practices;
(iii) ensure that hazardous wastes be accompanied by a movement document, containing information specified in Annex IV B, from the point of which a transboundary movement commences to the point of disposal;
(n) Parties shall take the appropriate measures to ensure that the transboundary movements of hazardous wastes only are allowed if:
(i) the State of export does not have the technical capacity and the necessary facilities, capacity or suitable disposal sites in order to dispose of the wastes in question in an environmentally sound and efficient manner; or
(ii) the transboundary movement in question is in accordance with other criteria to be decided by the Parties, provided those criteria do not differ from the objectives of this Convention;
(o) Under this Convention, the obligation of States in which hazardous wastes are generated, requiring that those wastes are managed in an environmentally sound manner, may not under any circumstances be transferred to the States of important or transit;
(p) Parties shall undertake to review periodically the possibilities for the reduction of the amount and/or the pollution potential of hazardous wastes which are exported to other States;
(q) Parties exercising their right to prohibit the import of hazardous wastes for disposal shall inform the other Parties of their decision pursuant to Article 13 of this Convention;
(r) Parties shall prohibit or shall not permit the export of hazardous wastes to States which have prohibited the import of such wastes, when notified by the Secretariat or any competent authority pursuant to sub-paragraph (q) above;
(s) Parties shall prohibit or shall not permit the export of hazardous wastes if the State of import does not consent in writing to the specific import, in the case where that State of import has not prohibited the import of such wastes;
(t) Parties shall ensure that the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes is reduced to the minimum consistent with the environmentally sound and efficient management of such wastes, and is conducted in a manner which will protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects which may result from such movement;
(u) Parties shall require that information about a proposed transboundary movement of hazardous wastes be provided to the States concerned, according to Annex IV A of this Convention, and clearly state the potential effects of the proposed movement on human health and the environment.
(a) Parties shall undertake to enforce the obligations of this Convention against offenders and infringements according to relevant national laws and/or international law;
(b) Nothing in this Convention shall prevent a Party from imposing additional requirements that are consistent with the provisions of this Convention, and are in accordance with the rules of international law, in order to better protect human health and the environment;
(c) This Convention recognizes the sovereignty of States over their territorial sea, waterways, and air space established in accordance with international law, and jurisdiction which States have in their exclusive economic zone and their continental shelves in accordance with international law, and the exercise by ships and aircraft of all States of navigation rights and freedoms as provided for in international law and as reflected in relevant international instruments.
ARTICLE 5 : Designation of Competent Authorities, Focal Point and Dumpwatch
To facilitate the implementation of this Convention, the Parties shall:
1. Designate or establish one or more competent authorities and one focal point. One competent authority shall be designated to receive the notification in case of a State of transit.
2. Inform the Secretariat, within three months of the date of the entry into force of this Convention for them, which agencies they have designated as their focal point and their competent authorities.
3. Inform the Secretariat, within one month of the date of decision, of any changes regarding the designations made by them under paragraph 2 above.
4. Appoint a national body to act as a Dumpwatch. In such capacity as a Dumpwatch, the designated national body only will be required to co-ordinate with the concerned governmental and non-governmental bodies.
ARTICLE 6: Transboundary Movement and Notification Procedures
1. The State of export shall notify, or shall require the generator or exporter to notify, in writing, through the channel of the competent authority of the State of export, the competent authority of the States concerned of any proposed transboundary movement of hazardous wastes. Such notification shall contain the declarations and information specified in Annex IV A of this Convention, written in a language acceptable to the State of import. Only one notification needs to be sent to each State concerned.
2. The State of import shall respond to the notifier in writing consenting to the movement with or without conditions, denying permission for the movement, or requesting additional information. A copy of the final response of the State of import shall be sent tot he competent authorities of the States concerned that are Parties to this Convention.
3. The State of export shall not allow the transboundary movement until it has received:
(a) written consent of the State of import; and
(b) from the State of import, written confirmation of the existence of a contract between the exporter and the disposer specifying environmentally sound management of the wastes in question.
4. Each State of transit which is a Party to this Convention shall promptly acknowledge to the notifier receipt of the notification. It may subsequently respond to the notifier in writing, within 60 days, consenting to the movement with or without conditions, denying permission for the movement, or requesting additional information. The State of export shall not allow the transboundary movement to commence until it has received the written consent of the State of transit.
5. In the case of a transboundary movement of hazardous wastes where the wastes are legally defined as or considered to be hazardous wastes only:
(a) By the State of export, the requirements of paragraph 8 of this Article that apply to the importer or disposer and the State of import shall apply mutatis mutandis to the exporter and State of export, respectively;
(b) By the Party of import, or by the States of import and transit which are Parties to this Convention, the requirements of paragraphs 1, 3, 4 and 6 of this Article that apply to the exporter and State of export shall apply mutatis mutandis to the importer or disposer and Party of import, respectively; or
(c) By any State of transit which is a Party to this Convention, the provisions of paragraph 4 of this Article shall apply to such State.
6. The State of export shall use a shipment specific notification even where hazardous wastes having the same physical and chemical characteristics are shipped regularly to the same disposer via the same customs office of entry of the State of import, and in the case of transit, via the same customs office of entry and exit of the State or States of transit; specific notification of each and every shipment.
7. Each Party to this Convention shall limit their points or ports of entry and notify the Secretariat to this effect for distribution to all Contracting Parties. Such points and ports shall be the only ones permitted for the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes.
8. The Parties to this Convention shall require that each person who takes charge of a transboundary movement of hazardous wastes sign the movement document either upon delivery or receipt of the wastes in question. They shall also require that the disposer inform both the exporter and the competent authority of the State of export of receipt by the disposer of the wastes in question and, in due course, of the completion of disposal as specified in the notification. If no such information is received within the State of export, the competent authority of the State of export or the exporter shall so notify the State of import.
9. The notification and response required by this Article shall be transmitted to the competent authority of the States concerned.
10. Any transboundary movement of hazardous wastes shall be covered by insurance, bond or other guarantee as may be required by the State of import, or any State of transit which is a Party to this Convention.
ARTICLE 7: Transboundary Movement from a Party through States which are not Parties
Paragraphs 2 and 4 of Article 6 of this Convention shall apply mutatis mutants to transboundary movements of hazardous wastes from a Party through a State or States which are not Parties.
ARTICLE 8: Duty to Re-import
When a transboundary movement of hazardous wastes to which the consent of the States concerned has been given, subject to the provisions of this Convention, cannot be completed in accordance with the terms of the contract, the State of export shall ensure that the wastes in question are taken back into the State of export, by the exporter, if alternative arrangements cannot be made for their disposal in an environmentally sound manner within a maximum of 90 days from the time that the importing State informed the State of export and the Secretariat. To this end, the State of export and any State of transit shall not oppose, hinder or prevent the return of those waste to the State of export.
ARTICLE 9: Illegal traffic
1. For the purpose of this Convention, any transboundary movement of hazardous wastes under the following situations shall be deemed to be illegal traffic:
(a) if carried out without notification, pursuant to the provisions of this Convention, to all States concerned; or
(b) if carried out without the consent, pursuant to the provisions of this Convention, of a State concerned; or
(c) if consent is obtained from States concerned through falsification, misrepresentation or fraud; or
(d) if it does not conform in a material way with the documents; or
(e) if it results in deliberate disposal of hazardous wastes in contravention of this Convention and of general principles of international law.
2. Each Party shall introduce appropriate national legislation for imposing criminal penalties on all persons who have planned, carried out, or assisted in such illegal imports. Such penalties shall be sufficiently high to both punish and deter such conduct.
3. In case of a transboundary movement of hazardous wastes deemed to be illegal traffic as the result of conduct on the part of the exporter or generator, the State of export shall ensure that the wastes in question are taken back by the exporter or the wastes in question are taken back by the exporter or generator or if necessary by itself into the State of export, within 30 days from the time the State of export has been informed about the illegal traffic. To this end the States concerned shall not oppose, hinder or prevent the return of those wastes to the State of export and appropriate legal action shall be taken against the contravenor(s).
4. In the case of a transboundary movement of hazardous wastes deemed to be illegal traffic as the result of conduct on the part of the importer or disposer, the State of import shall ensure that the wastes in question are returned to the exporter by the importer and that legal proceedings according to the provisions of this Convention are taken against the contravenor(s).
ARTICLE 10: Intra-African Cooperation
1. The Parties to this Convention shall co-operate with one another and with relevant African organizations, to improve and achieve the environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes.
2. To this end, the Parties shall:
(a) make available information, whether on a bilateral or multilateral basis, with a view to promoting clean production methods and the environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including harmonization of technical standards and practices for the adequate management of hazardous wastes;
(b) co-operate in monitoring the effects of the management of hazardous wastes on human health and the environment;
(c) co-operate, subject to their national laws, regulations and policies, in the development and implementation of new environmentally sound clean production technologies and the improvement of existing technologies with a view to eliminating, as far as practicable, the generation of hazardous wastes and achieving more effective and efficient methods of ensuring their management in an environmentally sound manner, including the study of the economic, social and environmental effects of the adoption of such new and improved technologies;
(d) co-operate, subject to their national laws, regulations and policies, in the development and implementation of new environmentally sound clean production technologies and the improvement of existing technologies with a view to eliminating, as far as practicable, the generation of hazardous wastes and achieving more effective and efficient methods of ensuring their management in an environmentally sound manner, including the study of the economic, social and environmental effects of the adoption of such new and improved technologies;
(e) co-operate in developing appropriate technical guidelines and/or codes of practice;
(f) co-operate in the exchange and dissemination of information on the movement of hazardous wastes in conformity with Article 13 of this Convention.
ARTICLE 11: International Co-operation Bilateral, Multilateral and Regional Agreements
1. Parties to this Convention may enter into bilateral, multilateral, or regional agreements or arrangements regarding the transboundary movement and management of hazardous wastes generated in Africa with Parties or non-Parties provided that such agreements or arrangements do not derogate from the environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes as required by this Convention. These agreements or arrangements shall stipulate provisions which are no less environmentally sound than those provided for by this Convention.
2. Parties shall notify the Secretariat of any bilateral, multilateral or regional agreements or arrangements referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article and those which they have entered into prior to the entry into force of this Convention for them, for the purpose of controlling transboundary movements of hazardous wastes which take place entirely among the Parties to such agreements. The provisions of this Convention shall not affect place pursuant to such agreements provided that such agreements are compatible with the environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes as required by this Convention.
3. Each Contracting Party shall prohibit vessels flying its flag or aircraft registered in its territory from carrying out activities in contravention of this Convention.
4. Parties shall use appropriate measures to promote South-South co-operation in the implementation of this Convention.
5. Taking into account the needs of developing countries, co-operation between international organizations is encouraged in order to promote, among other things, public awareness, the development of rational management of hazardous waste, and the adoption of new and non/less polluting technologies.
ARTICLE 12: Liabilities and Compensation
The Conference of Parties shall set up an ad hoc expert organ to prepare a draft protocol setting out appropriate rules and procedures in the field of liabilities and compensation for damage resulting from the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes.
ARTICLE 13: Transmission of Information
1. The Parties shall ensure that in the case of an accident occurring during the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes or their disposal which is likely to present risks to human health and the environment in other States, those States are immediately informed.
2. The States shall inform each other, through the Secretariat, of:
(a) changes regarding the designation of competent authorities and/or focal points, pursuant to Article 5 of this Convention;
(b) changes in their national definition of hazardous wastes, pursuant to Article 3 of this Convention;
(c) decisions made by them to limit or ban the import of hazardous wastes;
(d) any other information required pursuant to paragraph 4 of this Article.
3. The Parties, consistent with national laws and regulations, shall set up information collection and dissemination mechanisms on hazardous wastes. They shall transmit such information through the Secretariat, to the Conference of the Parties established under Article 15 of this Convention, before the end of each calendar year, in a report on the previous calendar year, containing the following information:
(a) competent authorities, dumpwatch, and focal points that have been designated by them pursuant to Article 5 of this Convention;
(b) information regarding transboundary movements of hazardous wastes in which they have been involved, including:
(i) the quantity of hazardous wastes exported, their category, characteristics, destination, any transit country and disposal method as stated in the notification;
(ii) the amount of hazardous wastes imported, their category, characteristics, origin, and disposal methods;
(iii) disposal which did not proceed as intended;
(iv) efforts to achieve a reduction of the amount of hazardous wastes subject to transboundary movement;
(c) information on the measures adopted by them in the implementation of this Convention;
(d) information on available qualified statistics – which have been compiled by them on the effects on human health and the environment of the generation, transportation, and disposal of hazardous wastes – as part of the information required in conformity with Article 4 Section 3 (a) of this Convention;
(e) information concerning bilateral, multilateral and regional agreements and arrangements entered into pursuant to Article 11 of this Convention;
(f) information on accidents occurring during the transboundary movements, treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes and on the measures undertaken to deal with them;
(g) information on treatment and disposal options operated within the area under their national jurisdiction;
(h) information on measures undertaken for the development of clean production methods, including clean production technologies, for the reduction and/or elimination of the production of hazardous wastes; and
(i) such other matters as the Conference of the Parties shall deem relevant.
4. The Parties, consistent with national laws and regulations, shall ensure that copies of each notification concerning any given transboundary movement of hazardous wastes, and the response to it, are sent to the Secretariat.
ARTICLE 14: Financial Aspects
1. The regular budget of the Conference of Parties, as required in Articles 15 and 16 of this Convention, shall be prepared by the Secretariat and approved by the Conference.
2. Parties shall, at the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties, agree on a scale of contributions to the recurrent budget of the Secretariat.
3. The Parties shall also consider the establishment of a revolving fund to assist, on an interim basis, in case of emergency situations to minimize damage from disasters or accidents arising from transboundary movements of hazardous wastes or during the disposal of such wastes.
4. The Parties agree that, according to the specific needs of different regions and subregions, regional or sub-regional centres for training and technology transfers regarding the management of hazardous wastes and minimization of their generation should be established, as well as appropriate funding mechanisms of a voluntary nature.
ARTICLE 15: Conference of the Parties
1. A Conference of the Parties, made up of Ministers having the environment as their mandate, is hereby established. The first meeting of the Conference of the parties shall be convened by the Secretary General of the OAU not later than one year after the entry into force of this Convention. Thereafter, ordinary meetings of the Conference of the Parties shall be held at regular intervals to be determined by the Conference at its first meeting.
2. The Conference of the Parties to this Convention shall adopt rules of procedure for itself and for any subsidiary body it may establish, as well as financial rules to determine in particular the financial rules to determine in particular the financial participation of the Parties to this Convention.
3. The Parties to this Convention at their first meeting shall consider any additional measures needed to assist them in fulfilling their responsibilities with respect to the protection and the preservation of the marine and inland waters environments in the context of this Convention.
4. The Conference of the Parties shall keep under continued review and evaluation the effective implementation of this Convention, and in addition, shall:
(a) promote the harmonization of appropriate policies, strategies and measures for minimizing harm to human health and the environment by hazardous wastes;
(b) consider and adopt amendments to this Convention and its annexes, taking into consideration, inter alia, available scientific, technical, economic and environmental information;
(c) consider and undertake any additional action that may be required for the achievement of the purpose of this Convention in the light of experience gained in its operation and in the operation of the agreements and arrangements envisaged in Article 11 of this Convention;
(d) consider and adopt protocols as required;
(e) establish such subsidiary bodies as are deemed necessary for the implementation of this Convention; and
(f) make decisions for the peaceful settlement of disputes arising from the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes, if need be, according to international law.
5. Organizations may be represented as observers at meetings of the Conference of the Parties. Any body or agency, whether national or international, governmental or nongovernmental, qualified in fields relating to hazardous wastes which has informed the Secretariat, may be represented as an observer at a meeting of the Conference of the Parties. The admission and participation of observers shall be subject to the rules of procedure adopted by the Conference of the Parties.
ARTICLE 16: Secretariat
1. The functions of the Secretariat shall be:
(a) to arrange for, and service, meetings provided for in Articles 15 and 17 of this Convention;
(b) to prepare and transmit reports based upon information received in accordance with Articles 3, 4, 6, 11 and 13 of this Convention as well as upon information derived from meetings of subsidiary bodies established under Article 15 of this Convention as well as upon as appropriate information provided by relevant inter-governmental and nongovernmental entities;
(c) to prepare reports on its activities carried out in the implementation of its functions under this Convention and present them to the Conference of the Parties;
(d) to ensure the necessary co-ordination with relevant international bodies, and in particular to enter into such administrative and contractual arrangements as may be required for the effective discharge of its functions;
(e) to communicate with focal points, competent authorities and Dumpwatch established by the Parties in accordance with Article 5 of this Convention as well as appropriate inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations which may provide assistance in the implementation of this Convention;
(f) to compile information concerning approved national sites and facilities of Parties to this Convention available for the disposal and treatment of their hazardous wastes and to circulate this information;
(g) to receive and convey information from and to Parties on:
· sources of technical assistance and training;
· available technical and scientific know-how;
· sources of advice and expertise; and
· availability of resources;
This information will assist them in,
· the management of the notification system of this Convention;
· environmentally sound clean production methods relating to hazardous wastes, such as clean production technologies;
· the assessment of disposal capabilities and sites;
· the monitoring of hazardous wastes; and
· emergency responses;
(h) to provide Parties to this Convention with information on consultants or consulting firms having the necessary technical competence in the field, which can assist them with examining a notification for a transboundary movement, the concurrence of a shipment of hazardous wastes with the relevant notification, and/or whether the proposed disposal facilities for hazardous wastes are environmentally sound, when they have reason to believe that the wastes in question will not be managed in an environmentally sound manner. Any such examinations would not be at the expense of the Secretariat;
(i) to assist Parties to this Convention in their identification of cases of illegal traffic and to circulate immediately to the Parties concerned any information it has received regarding illegal traffic;
(j) to co-operate with Parties to this Convention and with relevant and competent international organizations and agencies in the provision of experts and equipment for the purpose of rapid assistance to States in the event of an emergency situation; and
(k) to perform such other functions relevant to the purposes of this Convention as may be determined by the Conference of the Parties to this Convention.
2. The Secretariat’s functions shall be carried out on an interim basis by the Organization of African Unity (OAU) jointly with the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) until the completion of the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties held pursuant to Article 15 of this Convention. At this meeting, the Conference of the Parties shall also evaluate the implementation by the interim Secretariat of the functions assigned to it, in particular under paragraph 1 above, and decide upon the structures appropriate for those functions.
ARTICLE 17: Amendment of the Convention and of Protocols
1. Any Party may propose amendments to this Convention and any Party to a Protocol may propose amendments to that Protocol. Such amendments shall take due account, inter alia, of relevant scientific, technical, environmental and social considerations.
2. Amendments to this Convention shall be adopted at a meeting of the Conference of the Parties. Amendments to any Protocol shall be adopted at a meeting of the Parties to the Protocol in question. The text of any proposed amendment to this Convention or to any Protocol, except as may otherwise be provided in such Protocol, shall be communicated to the Parties by the Secretariat at least six months before the meeting at which it is proposed for adoption. The Secretariat shall also communicate proposed amendments to the Signatories to this Convention for their information.
3. The Parties shall make every effort to reach agreement on any proposed amendment to this Convention by consensus. If all efforts at consensus have been exhausted, and no agreement reached, the amendment shall, as a last resort, be adopted by a two-thirds majority vote of the Parties present and voting at the meeting. It shall then be submitted by the depository to all Parties for ratification, approval, formal confirmation or acceptance.
Amendment of Protocols to this Convention
4. The procedure specified in paragraph 3 above shall apply to amendments to any protocol, except that a two-thirds majority of the Parties to that Protocol present and voting at the meeting shall suffice for their adoption.
5. Instruments of ratification, approval, formal confirmation or acceptance of amendments shall be deposited with the Depository. Amendments adopted in accordance with paragraph 3 or 4 above shall enter into force between Parties having accepted them, on the ninetieth day after the receipt by the Depository of the instrument of ratification, approval, formal confirmation or acceptance by at least two-thirds of the Parties who accepted the amendments to the Protocol concerned, except as may otherwise be provided in such Protocol. The amendments shall enter into force for any other Party on the ninetieth day after that Party deposits its instrument of ratification, approval, formal confirmation or acceptance of the amendments.
6. For the purpose of this Article, “Parties present and voting” means Parties present and casting an affirmative or negative vote.
ARTICLE 18: Adoption and Amendment of Annexes
1. The annexes to this Convention or to any Protocol shall form an integral part of this Convention or of such Protocol, as the case may be and, unless expressly provided otherwise, a reference to this Convention or its Protocols constitutes at the same time a reference to any annexes thereto. Such annexes shall be restricted to scientific, technical and administrative matters.
2. Except as may be otherwise provided in any Protocol with respect to its annexes, the following procedures shall apply to the proposal, adoption and entry into force of additional annexes to this Convention or of annexes to a protocol:
(a) annexes to this Convention and its Protocols shall be proposed and adopted according to the procedure laid down in Article 17, paragraphs 1, 2, 3 and 4 of this Convention;
(b) any Party that is unable to accept an additional annex to this convention or an annex to any Protocol to which it is Party shall so notify the Depository, in writing, within six months from the date of the communication of the adoption by the Depository. The Depository shall without delay notify all Parties of any such notification received. A Part may at any time substitute an acceptance for a previous declaration of objection and the annexes shall thereupon enter into force for that Party;
(c) upon the expiration of six months from the date of the circulation of the communication by the Depository, the annex shall become effective for all Parties to this Convention or to any Protocol concerned with the provision of sub-paragraph (b) above.
3. The proposal, adoption and entry into force of amendments to annexes to this Convention or to any Protocol shall be subject to the same procedure as for the proposal, adoption and entry into force of annexes to the Convention or annexes to a Protocol. Annexes and amendments thereto shall take due account, inter alia, or relevant scientific and technical considerations.
4. If an additional annex or an amendment to an annex involves an amendment to this Convention or to any Protocol, the additional annex or amended annex shall not enter into force until such time as the amendment to this Convention or to the Protocol enters into force.
ARTICLE 19: Verification
Any Party which has reason to believe that another Party is acting or has acted in breach of its obligations under this Convention must inform the Secretariat thereof, and in such an event, shall simultaneously and immediately inform, directly or through the Secretariat, the Party against whom the allegations are made. The Secretariat shall carry out a verification of the substance of the allegation and submit a report thereof to all the Parties to this Convention.
ARTICLE 20: Settlement of Disputes
1. In case of dispute between Parties as to the interpretation or application of, or compliance with, this Convention or any Protocol thereto, the Parties shall seek a settlement of the dispute through negotiations or any other peaceful means of their own choice.
2. If the Parties concerned cannot settle their dispute as provided in paragraph 1 of this Article, the dispute shall be submitted either to an ad hoc organ set up by the Conference for this purpose, or to the International Court of Justice.
3. The conduct of arbitration of disputes between Parties by the ad hoc organ provided for in paragraph 2 of this Article shall be as provided in Annex V of this Convention.
ARTICLE 21: Signature
This Convention shall be open for signature by Member States of the OAU in Bamako and Addis Ababa for a period of six months from 30 January 1991 to 31 July 1991.
ARTICLE 22: Ratification, Acceptance, Formal Confirmation or Approval
1. This Convention shall be subject to ratification, acceptance, formal confirmation, or approval by Member States of the OAU. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, formal confirmation, or approval shall be deposited with the Depository.
2. Parties shall be bound by all obligations of this Convention.
ARTICLE 23: Accession
This Convention shall be open for accession by Member States of the OAU from the day after the date on which the Convention is closed for signature. The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Depository.
ARTICLE 24: Right to Vote
Each Contracting Party to this Convention shall have one vote.
ARTICLE 25: Entry into Force
1. This Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit of the tenth instrument of ratification from Parties signatory to this Convention.
2. For each State which ratifies this Convention or accedes thereto after the date of the deposit of the tenth instrument of ratification, it shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit by such State of its instrument of accession or ratification.
ARTICLE 26: Reservations and Declarations
1. No reservations or exception may be made to this Convention.
2. Paragraph 1 of this Article does not preclude a State when signing, ratifying, or acceding to this Convention, from making declarations or statements, however phrased or named, with a view, inter alia, to the harmonization of its laws and regulations with the provisions of this Convention, provided that such declarations or statements do not purport to exclude or to modify the legal effects of the provisions of the Convention in their application to that State.
ARTICLE 27: Withdrawal
1. At any time after three years from the date on which this Convention has entered into force for a Party, that Party may withdraw from the Convention by giving written notification to the Depository.
2. Withdrawal shall be effective one year after receipt of notification by the Depository, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification.
3. Withdrawal shall not exempt the withdrawing Party from fulfilling any obligations it might have incurred under this Convention.
ARTICLE 28: Depository
The Secretary General of the Organization of African Unity shall be the Depository for this Convention and of any Protocol thereto.
ARTICLE 29 : Registration
This Convention, as soon as it enters into force, shall be registered with the Secretary General of the United Nations Organization (UNO) in conformity with Article 102 of the Charter of the UNO.
ARTICLE 30: Authentic Texts
The Arabic, English, French and Portuguese texts of this Convention are equally authentic.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Convention.
Adopted in Bamako, Mali,
on 30 January, 1991
(Accessible via PDF link at the top of this page)